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Old 20-02-2013, 17:54
jainso31 jainso31 is offline
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Default Battle of Culloden -15th April 1746

As the long, late afternoon shadows of April 14, 1746 crept away toward the shores of Ireland and points west the Cameron men arrived in Inverness. Their urgent fifty mile march, which in only two days time had brought them from their beloved land of Lochaber to the capital of the Highlands, left many in Lochiel's regiment exhausted. Nevertheless, mustering at the Bridge-end they were only in town for less than two hours before hearing the Duke of Cumberland's Hanoverian forces were at Nairn, just twelve miles north-east. They immediately set-off for Drummossie Moor, five miles distant, where Prince Charles Edward Stuart's Jacobite troops were assembled.

In the early evening light Donald Cameron of Lochiel, XIX Captain and Chief of Clan Cameron is said to have gazed upon the hill by Culloden House where the entire body of the army, some 3800 men, "lay upon the ground among the furze and trees of Culloden Wood." Their ranks would swell to approximately 4500 with the arrival of these 700 "sons of the hound." Many of these men had been about the Inverness area for two months now waiting for Cumberland's approach; their wait would soon come to an abrupt end.

That evening Lochiel joined his Jacobite peers and Prince Charles at their quarters in Culloden House. The Prince's "person" was well protected that evening, as the Cameron men had been assigned to "mount guard" upon him. This area of Drummossie Moor, commonly referred to as Culloden Moor, was the topic which garnered their immediate attention. It was a "flat and featureless stretch of plain, just the sort of terrain the Hanoverians preferred and where their tactical strengths-large bodies of men, fighting as units, and powerful artillery-could be put to use with the greatest advantage." The Chief of Clan Cameron, along with Lord George Murray and numerous other chiefs, strongly urged the Prince to abandon this site as it was in the words of Murray "not proper for Highlanders." Both of Murray's well conceived alternatives, namely rough ground close to Dalcross Castle and a tract of "hill and boggy" land on the south side of the River Nairn were rejected by Prince Charles. In his thoughts it was either a major battle near Culloden House (a country house on the road the enemy must take to reach Inverness) or facing the loss of Inverness. The choice of Culloden Moor was made by one of the few advisors which the 25 year old Prince trusted, his Quartermaster and Adjutant-General John William O'Sullivan, a man neither respected nor liked by the Highland chiefs. As these leaders among men diplomatically discussed the fate of common clansmen, the remaining unoccupied Camerons managed to somehow "get some sacks of meal and were able to bake bread," supplementing the army's given ration of one single biscuit daily. Soon they would join their fellow Highlanders, wrapped amidst their own tartan, sleeping under the stars on the softened springtime ground.

Early the next morning, the 15th, Prince Charles had the Jacobite soldiers drawn up in order of battle outside of Culloden House, awaiting Cumberland's estimated 8,500 men. Unknown to the Prince it was the young Duke's 25th birthday. Consequently, his "well paid and fed" Hanoverian troops earned a day's rest, toasting their "savage disciplinarian" with brandy that Cumberland had distributed among them. By late morning the Hanoverian troops had still not arrived; reports from the few Jacobite advance scouts stated that they hadn't even broken camp.

Along with this delay came serious complications. First and foremost the Prince's army had finally run out of food. Around noontime the soldiers were given what amounted to their last meal, once again a single biscuit. It is believed that the Camerons fared better than many of the other clansmen, having replenished themselves with meal while in Lochaber. Nevertheless, they too were feeling the effects of starvation, malnutrition and disease. Once the army was ordered to "stand down" as many as one third of the Highlanders went in search of food. Some ventured into Inverness, others foraged west of the River Ness into The Aird. The Jacobite leaders witnessed their ranks shrinking and knew that they couldn't survive as an organized army any longer without food. The battle had to come immediately.

"If Cumberland could not be brought to Culloden, Murray reasoned, the Jacobites could go to Nairn." A surprise night march upon the Hanoverian forces, a tactic which resulted in overwhelming victory for Prince Charles at the battle of Prestonpans, was suggested and approved. They reasoned that the majority of the enemy would be drunk, tired and ill prepared to form up and defend themselves. The Hanoverian artillery would not be able to come into play and the Jacobite's specialty, hand-to-hand combat, would prevail.

At eight o'clock that evening a "significant portion" (about 3,500 men) of their army set off for Nairn. Their departure was delayed due to the necessity of waiting for the arrival of recalled troops, who were searching for food. "In his joyous excitement at the prospect of victory, Charles was moved to embrace Murray, thanking him for all that he had done..." The Camerons were in the van, along with the Stewarts of Appin and Lord George who was with "his" Athollmen (a total van of 1,200 men.) Led and guided by officers of Clan Mackintosh (for this was their clan territory) the Jacobites slogged on in darkness across the wet moorland which was heavy with fog. It was "trackless moor with sudden quagmires and earth which moved underfoot." Even though the advance guard was averaging a conservative pace (about two miles per hour) its progress was far too rapid for the heavily encumbered main body. Murray's van had to repeatedly stop, letting the main body catch up. Many of the Highlanders were dropping out from hunger and fatigue, literally passing out before hitting the ground. Finally Lochiel approached Lord Murray, telling him that the attempt must be called off, citing exhaustion, disorganization and time slipping away. Murray wrote "...it was near two in the morning; and having still four long miles (to go), it was found impractical to be near the enemy till it was within an hour of day-light, and as our hope was surprising them, and attacking them before day, we were forced to give up." Lochiel was assigned the unpleasant task of riding back to where Charles accompanied the army "to face his Princely wrath by telling him likewise; the army must retreat." Objections and cries of "betrayal" were thrown at Lochiel by Prince Charles, nevertheless he ordered their about face. Riding among the men he proclaimed quite loudly, over the rumbling stomachs of the men, "Tis no matter then. March back! We shall meet them later and behave like brave fellows."

"Dawn came, a sullen dawn with rain imminent." The majority of the weary soldiers arrived back at Culloden Moor that Wednesday between 5 and 6 a.m., though many would come wandering into camp for the next few hours. Men from each regiment were sent into Inverness in an attempt to once again procure food for the soldiers, most of whom were fast asleep. Lord George Murray once again proposed retreat, either to Inverness or dispersing to the hills, reforming and fighting south of the River Nairn. "The Prince rejected these ideas, arguing that Cumberland would be at an advantage at Inverness, that, short of food, the clansmen could not afford to retreat to the Highlands and that to fight south of the Nairn would be to expose Inverness." Lochiel and the other chiefs agreed with Murray, but out of loyalty obeyed the Prince's wishes. Charles supposed intention was to feed the men, let them have some well deserved rest and attempt the same surprise march that evening. He managed to obtain a little bread and whiskey, after which he too was fast asleep.

With the arrival of the imminent rain, and rising winds, also came a messenger. "About 8 o'clock, Cameron, a Lieutenant in Lochiel's Regiment, (who had been left asleep near the place where the halt was made [the prior night]) came to Culloden House, where Charles and his principal officers lodged, and informed them that he had seen the Duke's army in full march toward them." The officers immediately set out for their regiments, where the pipers wailed, drums beat to arms and trumpets sounded, waking the men for battle. Prince Charles soon rode onto the moor south of Culloden House on a grey gelding, at the head of the Camerons. "Go on my lads" he cried, "the day will be ours!" were the final words of inspiration which the Cameron men would hear from their Prince when they took the field at "Cul lodain," "the back of the swamp."

Despite a recent influx of recalled troops, a large number of Jacobites were still away seeking food or sleeping in remote locations ("for some, a thousand or more, even the rant of their clan, squeezed from the bag, was not enough to waken them.") Including many last minute regimental arrivals Lord Murray estimated 3,000 troops were formed up on the moor that day, other reputable estimates range anywhere from 4,000 to 5,500 men. Regardless of their numbers these men were "visibly damp and dejected."

In the midst of preparation for the battle of Culloden the Camerons, Stewarts of Appin and the Athollmen were given the honor of being positioned in the first line of the Jacobite right flank. Since this was a position traditionally reserved for the men of Clan MacDonald, many ill feelings passed between the army's opposite flanks. "The storm was abating, the rain giving way to drizzle and then to overcast with fitful sunshine, though the wind continued to blow. The drenching had wetted the men's muskets and powder horns, which meant that the weapons might or might not fire."

At 11 AM some Cameron and Mackintosh men, posted in advance of the army, first saw the coming of Cumberland's army. Initially they only heard their drums. They waited to make visual confirmation and then slipped back to the Highland line, where their clansmen had been standing in formation for hours. Before long the Highlanders lifted their heads, looking into and through the intermittent "sleet-like rain" which was striking their faces, and saw their red coated enemies.

The Camerons, Stewarts of Appin and the Athollmen made up the right flank's first line. The men of Atholl were positioned on the far right "with their flank resting on the dry-stone wall of the Culwhinia enclosure." Between them and the Stewarts was Lochiel's regiment. A reported 700 men, mainly from Lochaber, were there in Lochiel's formation, mostly consisting of Camerons but also known to include a few men from at least the following clans and septs: Fraser, Grants, MacDonald, MacDougall, MacHoule, MacKenzie, MacLachlan, MacLeod, MacMartin, MacMillan, MacNeill, MacOllonie, MacPhee and even a few men from Clan Campbell. Nevertheless, this was a Clan Cameron regiment, accompanied by their septs and various tenants from Lochiel's estate.

"Before each clan stood the chief...With him were his henchmen and his piper, and a small bodyguard formed by two of the best men from each company of the clan. With the companies in line, captained by cadets of the chieftain's family, or by chiefs of smaller septs, were two lieutenants and two ensigns, and they, too, were chief's sons or the sons of sons. The first ranks of each company consisted of men who may have held land or had no land at all, but who were, in the geology of their society, placed among the strata of gentlemen...Behind them stood those with lesser claims to gentility, and behind again yet another rank, so that in some clans the ranks were six deep. In the rear of all stood the wild and bearded humblies...But these common men, disposed themselves by families, brothers and sons about the father, for it was in the tradition of their hills that the oldest and most respected should stand closest to the enemy, and that inspiration and courage should pass through father, brother, son, tenant and servant."

The composition of Lochiel's front rank may be surmised from the above description, beginning with Lochiel himself. Donald Cameron of Lochiel, the future XIX Chief of Clan Cameron (sometimes referred to as the "Young Lochiel" or "Gentle Lochiel") was the Captain/Commander of the regiment. He was flanked by his two brothers, Lieutenant Colonel Dr. Archibald Cameron and Reverend Father Alexander Cameron, along with a bodyguard of two picked men from each company of the regiment. Also with the chief was his principal aide and captain of one company, Allan Cameron of Callart. Along side was Lochiel's second in command, Donald Cameron of Erracht. Third in command was Major Alexander Cameron of Dungallon, the brother-in-law of Dr. Archibald Cameron, leading men from Glen Hurich, Sunart and Ardnamurchan. While Dungallon's son functioned in the capacity of Standard Bearer to the Prince, Donald Mor Cameron and Alexander MacLachlan of Coruanan, by choice and hereditary right upheld Lochiel's seven foot by five foot banner of red fabric, bearing Lochiel's complete armorial achievement. Although the clan had apparently begun to rally under the motto "Aonaibh Ri Cheile" the banner still had the prior motto, "Pro Rege et Patria" emblazoned upon it, with the dexter arm holding a sword. The remaining front rank consisted of officers from the many cadet branches of Clan Cameron. Ewen Cameron of Dawnie led a body of Camerons of Glenevis. Ewen Cameron of Inverlochy, acting as a captain, led the men from his lands north of Fort William. Further down the line was a menacing figure, six foot-seven inch Captain Hugh Cameron. Lieutenant Colonel Ludovic Cameron of Torcastle (Lochiel's uncle) was also there, with the remainder of the 300 Camerons which he raised for the Jacobites. Most notably among the numerous sergeants who followed these gentlemen were Ian Dubh (Sergeant John/Big John) Cameron and Malcom (Whiskie) Cameron. These were just two of the men who would lead the Camerons of the rear ranks. All told there were seven Cameron Captains, an adjutant and fourteen subalterns. Within the regiment there were also contingents from the numerous tribes of Clan Cameron, under their respective chiefs and leaders, most notably Cameron of Strone at the head of the Macgillonies and a contingent of MacMillans from Loch Arkaig under their own officers. Many varied "Camerons" would fight for Lochiel that Wednesday afternoon, most of their names died along with them on the battlefield.

Not only among Lochiel's regiment were Camerons to be found. As the Hanoverian army advanced onto Culloden Moor they were greeted by Camerons in nearly every Jacobite regiment. Progressing down the front line, past the aforementioned right wing, one would next come upon the 300 men of Clan Fraser. The Camerons among this battalion were mostly tenants on Lord Lovat's lands centered just east of nearby Beauly. To their immediate left were the 500 men of Clan Chattan, a confederation of clans made up mostly of Mackintoshes. Among these men, who had yet to see action in the uprising, were Camerons from Nairn and other towns near the battlefield. Their leader, lieutenant-colonel Alexander MacGillivray of Dunmaglass, seems also to have commanded the next regiment on the front line, the Farquharsons; Camerons were among them as well. Moving ahead one would encounter the numerous MacDonald regiments, under the command of Lord James Drummond, The Duke of Perth. Among these 1,000 angry soldiers were Cameron farmers from Glen Urquhart. Cameron men were also dispersed among the second line of the Jacobite army, providing, when considered along with the front line, that the clan would participate in every aspect of the upcoming battle.

At about 1 p.m., with the sky darkening and rain "driving" into the Highlander's faces, the first shot was fired. It came from one of the 12 "ill-manned" Jacobite four and six pounder cannons which were dispersed among the right, left and center of the front line, 500 yards from the enemy. "The Rebel ball passed over Lord Bury's indifferent head...and came down somewhere in the rear, cutting a soldier in half. The Jacobite guns were not to improve upon that." The numerous field pieces of Cumberland's Royal Artillery responded. "The high moor shuddered, the Rebel lines were at once hidden by the smoke, and the gunners could see their black shot passing smoothly into the fog." Less than ten minutes later, whether from lack of ammunition or skilled gunners, the ineffective Jacobite cannons fell silent. The Hanoverian barrage continued. "Above the rolling, rumbling discharge, and the screams of those who had been hit, officers of the clans shouted desperately `Close up! Close up!...' And the clansmen closed the gaps the round-shot made, but they looked over their shoulders to the rear, or cried back at their officers, demanding the order to charge." The Highlanders endured this attack for twenty to twenty-five minutes, during which they lost an estimated one-third of their men. It is said that the order to charge was given by Prince Charles, with the young messenger soon joined the mounting round-shot casualties, never reaching the commanders with the orders.

In the meanwhile the men of Clan Campbell were busy within the Culwhinia enclosure, readying a treacherous surprise for the Highlanders. Initially ordered to post guard at the Hanoverian baggage train, a significant number of them advanced through the enclosure, being separated from the Jacobites by a four foot tall stone wall. The Camerons and Athollmen saw the Argyll militia's movement on their right, a few hundred yards off. Soon Lochiel approached Lord Murray with his concerns about being flanked. Murray had earlier expressed similar concerns with O'Sullivan, who simply ignored him. The Campbells took the Culwhinia enclosure and heavily manned its north wall. They were soon joined by 500 cavalry dragoons, commanded by General Henry Hawley. With the Campbell pibroch sounding through the rain against the rant of their ancient enemies, Hawley addressed Commander Colin Campbell of Ballimore in regard to the wall: "Pull it down!"

"Because they were nearest to the enemy, three hundred paces from Sergeant Edward Bristow's guns on the flanks of Barrell's and Munro's, the Atholl Brigade and the Cameron men suffered most. Lochiel, a pistol in one hand and a sword in the other, stood angrily before his men, and heard the balls whispering past to kill them. He sent a kinsman to Lord George, saying that he would be able to hold his clan in check no longer, they were `galled by the enemy's cannon and were turned so impatient that they were like to break their ranks.' Lord George, no less angry with his vacillating Prince, sent an officer to Charles urging the order to advance."

Enduring more than was humanly possible the men of Clan Chattan bravely broke ranks and charged. The Cameron men threw down their firearms in disgust, grasped their trusted swords and Lochaber axes tightly, pulled their tartan kilts high to the groin and with the unearthly snarl of a Highland yell coming deep from within disappeared into the black gunpowder smoke soon after the Mackintoshes. The sons of the hound had come to get meat.

The Hanoverians were blinded by the smoke as well, nevertheless, they could most definitely hear the Highland charge. The Royal Artillery immediately changed from ball to grape-shot. "No powder was ladled into the barrels this time, but a paper case rammed home and containing charge, leaden balls, nails and old iron." "In mid-field, Appin Stewarts and Camerons collided with Clan Chattan, and for a moment the charge halted. Or perhaps it was halted by the first murderous discharge of grape, the balls and the iron whispering and whistling their killing way. Father stumbled over son, brother over brother in the sudden slaughter. Then the charge came on, but now the Appin men and Camerons swung to the right like animals shying in alarm, and they drove for the left of the Royal line."

Just as the Camerons were nearing Barrell's and Munro's regiments, on the aforementioned Royal left flank, Lochiel went down. It is said that while advancing at the head of his regiment that he had just fired his pistol and was in the act of drawing his sword when the grape-shot broke both of his ankles. One account has him leaning up on his elbows in the dirt, fifty yards from the action, watching his clan engage the enemy. "Barrell's and Munro's had held their fire until the bobbing, yelling faces were within twenty yards of them, and then there was time for one volley only from each rank." One Hanoverian soldier later remarked "We had some hundreds of them breathless on the ground. They rallied, and before our left could load (they) came again like lions to the charge, sword in hand..." The furious "leaping, kilted" Highlanders were then upon them.

First and foremost the nearby artillery units were taken out of action. "Sergeant Bristow, at his guns between these battalions, fired grape from both, one discharge and then he was chopped down by a Cameron sword, as were Bombardier Paterson and Gunner Edward Hust. All three crawled beneath the wheels of their guns, with terrible wounds from which they were not to die until two months later." Even their new bayonet training, a technique in which thrusts were directed not at the Highlander in front of them, rather at the one to the right, did not adequately prepare the Hanoverian soldiers for such an onslaught.

"They climbed over their dead, which soon lay four deep, and they hacked at the muskets with such maniacal fury that far down the line men could hear the iron clang of sword on barrel." "The fight was confused and bitter and the (Hanoverian) line swayed, Barrell's lion standard of blue dipping at the center. Lord Robert Kerr, captain of the grenadiers, received the first charging Cameron on the point of his spontoon, but then a second cut him through the head to chin. Stewarts and Camerons flooded through the gap of the guns and cut at the grenadiers of Munro's as well as Barrell's. Some ran to the rear where Lieutenant-Colonel Rich of Barrell's was standing on foot. He held out his slender sword to parry the swing of a broadsword and both hand and sword were cut from his wrist." A captain of Munro's later recounted that "I thank God I escaped free, but my coat has six balls through it. In the midst of this action the officer that led on the Camerons called to me to take quarter, which I refused and bid the rebel scoundrel advance. He did, and fired at me, but providentially missed his mark. I then shot him dead and took his pistol and dirk..."

Lord George Murray was there along with the Camerons. His "spirited" horse took him past the Hanoverian battalion guns to the rear of the Royals, where he dismounted and fought his way back to the Camerons. Realizing that they needed reinforcements he and his broken sword would soon run across the moor, screaming for the second line to advance. "The attack was made with the greatest courage, order and bravery, amidst the hottest fire of small arms and continued fire of cannon with grape-shot, on their flanks, front and rear. They ran upon the points of the bayonets, hewed down the soldiers with their broadswords and drove them back..."

Barrell's regiment was "in reality completely beat aside." In the meanwhile Wolfe's flanking regiment continued its enfilade firing (which had already decimated the Athollmen to the Cameron's right) into the assembled Camerons and Stewarts of Appin. A young Major James Wolfe wrote on the following day that the Camerons were "the bravest clan amongst them." The Camerons continued pressing through the lines, and Barrell's regiment bore the brunt of their fury. "Still more of Barrell's platoons fell back to form with Semphill's (in the second line) and the ground between the first and second line began to fill with clansmen." "For a moment, and it was a very short moment, it seemed as though the Camerons were to sweep Barrell's away. They broke into and through its center, striking down four officers there...in this close confusion, where a man had no room to swing a sword or to lunge with the bayonet, the clansmen stabbed and thrust with the dirks in their left hands." "...such was the impetuosity of the onset, that they (Barrell's and Munro's) would have been entirely cut to pieces had they not been immediately supported by two regiments from the second line, on the approach of which they retired behind the regiments on the right..." In this seemingly short period of time the Camerons and Stewarts reportedly delivered upon Munro's 19 dead and 63 wounded. Barrell's did much worse, with 120 dead or wounded later recorded. "...although it was on its left that the Royal Army suffered the greatest loss, the figures were nothing against the dead and dying of Lord Murray's clans."

One Hanoverian soldier recounted the action against the Camerons and Stewarts and his English colonel's words: "He bid the men push home with their bayonets, and was so well obeyed that hundreds perished on their points." "After breaking through these two regiments on their right, the Highlanders (Camerons and Stewarts) passing by the two field-pieces which had annoyed them in front, hurried forward to attack the left of the second line. They were met by a tremendous fire of grape-shot from the three field pieces on the left of the second line, and by a discharge of musketry from Bligh's and Semphill's regiments, which carried havoc through their ranks, and made them at first recoil; but, maddened by despair, and utterly regardless of their lives, they rushed upon an enemy whom they felt but could not see amid the cloud of smoke in which the assailants were buried." "[The Camerons] literally hurled themselves upon the enemy regiments...and endured the terrible assaults of grape-shot and musketry from the two regiments on the left of Cumberland's second line (Semphill's and Bligh's)." Trapped between the Hanoverian first and second lines the Camerons who would stay and fight were eventually "systematically shot and cut down."

"...at last the fury slackened. One by one, and then in twos and threes, and finally in tens, the Stewarts and Camerons fell back, running, or walking with heads turned in defiance." To their left Clan Chattan, some of whom had also reached the Royal line, was decimated and on the far left wing the MacDonalds, who repeatedly stopped within one hundred yards of the Hanoverian line were shot dead without ever coming into contact with the enemy. Lord Murray, who by this point had taken command into his own hands, was attempting to advance with reinforcements from the rear but the battle was already decided.

The retreating Camerons paused before Lochiel, who was probably being closely attended to by his brother Dr. Archibald. Surrounded by a curtain of clansmen he was lifted among the procession. "Nothing could excel the love of the Camerons for their Lochiel...for, being wounded in the very height and fury of the battle, two of them took hold of his legs, a third supported his head, while the rest posted themselves round him as an impregnable bulwark..." About this time a MacLachlan of Coruanan reached down for the fallen standard of Clan Cameron, took it from the pole, and carried it from the field - one hundred and fifty years later it would find its way back to the Camerons of Lochiel.

"Now was the moment for the Argyll men. They stood up behind the dry-stone wall and fired a volley into the flank of the exhausted, staggering retreat. They loaded calmly and fired three more volleys, and then they drew their broadswords. They yelled `Cruachan!' They climbed over the wall and rushed upon the Camerons, but they did not have it all their own way." Citing extremely reduced numbers among Lochiel's regiment and severity of their preceding action the Campbells thought it safe enough to risk direct confrontation with one of their immortal enemies. In regard to the physical engagement with Clan Cameron it may be said with certainty that the Highlanders exchanged even amounts of casualties, ending with the Camerons demoralizing the "malicious" Campbells by killing their Commander, Colin Campbell of Ballimore. Lochiel was safely brought from the field.

"The tartan tide was ebbing back all over the moor and when it passed beyond the three score yards at which a musket was effective, the Royal line stopped its volleying, although Belford's gunners kept up the grape. The east wind was still blowing strongly, but the rain and the sleet had long since stopped, and the sky which had been steel-grey was now a sulphurous yellow from the smoke. Along the ranks the subalterns and sergeants cried `Rest on your Arms!,' and the men of Pulteney's and the Royals, of Cholmondeley's, Price's and Fusiliers, the bloody platoons of Munro's and Barrell's, grounded their muskets and stared. The heather before them writhed and heaved, and the air was full of the cries and the groans of the wounded. Where the fallen were thickest the bodies made little pyramids, from which naked arms or legs jerked in agony, and the red and yellow of their tartans were mixed with the blood and bile of the clans. Not only Fusilier Linn (`I never saw a field thicker of dead') but other veterans of the dead ground at Fontenoy thought that they had never seen a field so heavy with dead and dying." Prince Charles Edward Stuart was gone, quickly retreating to the west and into history.


http://www.clan-cameron.org/battles/1746_b.html



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Old 21-02-2013, 22:16
Scatari Scatari is online now
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Default Re: Battle of Culloden -15th April 1746

Jim:

Must admit that this article sent the proverbial shivers down my spine!

My mother was a Cameron whose ancestors left the Highlands shortly after Culloden (one step ahead of the Redcoats and the Campbells!) and came to Canada. Many years ago, when my father was posted to the UK, we spent two summer holidays in Scotland and a major event each summer was to visit Achnacarry, Glencoe, the battlefield of Culloden and other sites of significance to Clan Cameron.

And to prove that the Scots have long memories, my mother refused to her dying day even to speak to anyone named "Campbell!"
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Old 22-02-2013, 00:26
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Brian Wentzell Brian Wentzell is offline
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Tim and Jim: Being of MacDonald extraction on my mother's side, we too have a certain reluctance to get too close to the Campbell clan.

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Old 22-02-2013, 06:09
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Default Re: Battle of Culloden -15th April 1746

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Originally Posted by Brian Wentzell View Post
Tim and Jim: Being of MacDonald extraction on my mother's side, we too have a certain reluctance to get too close to the Campbell clan.

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After the massacre of the MacDonalds at Glencoe, who can blame you?
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Old 22-02-2013, 09:45
jainso31 jainso31 is offline
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Tim and Brian-a' the Braw!

In 1692, 38 unarmed people of the Clan MacDonald of Glencoe were killed in the Massacre of Glencoe when a government initiative to suppress Jacobitism was entangled in the long running feud between Clan MacDonald and Clan Campbell. The slaughter of the MacDonalds at the hands of the soldiers, led by Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, after enjoying their hospitality for over a week was a major affront of Scottish Law and Highland tradition. The majority of soldiers were not Campbells, but a roll call from a few months before included six Campbells in addition to Cpt. Robt. Campbell: Corporal Achibald Campbell, Private Archibald Campbell (elder), Private Donald Campbell (younger), Private Archibald Campbell (younger), Private James Campbell, Private Donald Campbell (elder), and Private Duncan Campbell. Retrieved from: Earl of Argyll's Regiment of Foot

1715 to 1719 Jacobite Rising
During the Jacobite risings of the 18th century the Clan Campbell supported the British-Hanoverian Government. On 23 October 1715, chief John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll learned that a detachment of rebels was passing by Castle Campbell, towards Dunfermline. He sent out a body of cavalry which attacked the rebel party and defeated it and took a number of prisoners, taking only light casualties. A month later the British government forces, including men from Clan Campbell, fought and defeated the Jacobites at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in 1715. However there were in fact a small number of Campbells who took the side of the Jacobites led by the son of Campbell of Glenlyon whose father had commanded the government troops at the Massacre of the Glencoe MacDonalds 22 years earlier. These two families then settled their differences and swore to be brothers in arms, fighting side by side in the Sheriffmuir. However the British government forces led by John Campbell, Duke of Argyll defeated the Jacobites.

1745 to 1746 Jacobite Rising
During the Jacobite Uprisings of 1745 to 1746 the Clan Campbell continued their support for the British Government. They fought against the rebel Jacobites at the Battle of Falkirk (1746) where government forces were defeated. However shortly afterwards the Clan Campbell held out during the Siege of Fort William. The Jacobites could not defeat the Campbell defenders who had been well supplied. Eventually the Campbells sent out their own force from Fort William who defeated the besieging Jacobites and captured their siege cannons.
Soon afterwards men of the Clan Campbell who formed part of Loudon's Highlanders Regiment helped to finally defeat the Jacobites at the Battle of Culloden in 1746.


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Old 22-02-2013, 16:40
johnny07 johnny07 is offline
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Default Re: Battle of Culloden -15th April 1746

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Jim:

Must admit that this article sent the proverbial shivers down my spine!

My mother was a Cameron whose ancestors left the Highlands shortly after Culloden (one step ahead of the Redcoats and the Campbells!) and came to Canada. Many years ago, when my father was posted to the UK, we spent two summer holidays in Scotland and a major event each summer was to visit Achnacarry, Glencoe, the battlefield of Culloden and other sites of significance to Clan Cameron.

And to prove that the Scots have long memories, my mother refused to her dying day even to speak to anyone named "Campbell!"
During WW2 the army commandos and latterly RM commandos were trained at Achnacarry. The officers being bitteted in Camerons castle and the soldiers in nissan huts. The famous memorial is nearby all in the shadow of Ben Nevis.
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  #7  
Old 22-02-2013, 19:40
Tonym Tonym is offline
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Default Re: Battle of Culloden -15th April 1746

Having read that account and living some 600 miles down south my blood pressure went up any my bottle of scotch went down.

i've only been to Scotland once, some 60 years ago, to see England play Scotland. I daren't tell you the result in case you invade the farm behind me.

Tony
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  #8  
Old 22-02-2013, 23:05
jainso31 jainso31 is offline
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Default Re: Battle of Culloden -15th April 1746

Yes Tony it is a blood curdling tale and I take no pleasure in the telling of it- but the truth will out.The English were for many centuries a cruel manipulative people and much of that still remains to this day.
I belong the Royal and Ancient Borough of Berwick on Tweed,which is in Northumberland and there is no fear of likes of me burning anyone's farm.Thank for your comments and I'll have dram with you.Cheers!!

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  #9  
Old 23-02-2013, 20:43
jainso31 jainso31 is offline
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Default Re: Battle of Culloden -15th April 1746

AFTERMATH

The morning following the Battle of Culloden, Cumberland issued a written order reminding his men that "the public orders of the rebels yesterday was to give us no quarter". Cumberland alluded to the belief that such orders had been found upon the bodies of fallen Jacobites. In the days and weeks that followed, versions of the alleged orders were published in the Newcastle Journal and the Gentleman's Journal.

Today only one copy of the alleged order to "give no quarter" exists. It is however considered to be nothing but a poor attempt of forgery, for it is neither written nor signed by Murray, and it appears on the bottom half of a copy of a declaration published in 1745. In any event, Cumberland's order was not carried out for two days, after which contemporary accounts report then that for the next two days the moor was searched and all those wounded were put to death.

In the aftermath of the battle, some of the Government troops felt warranted in giving no quarter to the wounded lying upon the moor because they believed comrades to have been "murdered in cold blood" at the Battle of Falkirk Muir. The orders issued by Lord George Murray for the conduct of the aborted night attack in the early hours of 16 April suggest that it would have been every bit as merciless. The instructions were to use only swords, dirks and bayonets, to overturn tents locate "a swelling or bulge in the fallen tent, there to strike and push vigorously". In total, over 20,000 head of livestock, sheep, and goats were driven off and sold at Fort Augustus, where the soldiers split the profits.

While in Inverness, Cumberland emptied the gaols that were full of people imprisoned by Jacobite supporters, replacing them with Jacobites themselves. Prisoners were taken south to England to stand trial for high treason. Many were held on hulks on the Thames or in Tilbury Fort, and executions took place in Carlisle, York and Kennington Common. The common Jacobite supporters fared better than the ranking individuals. In total, 120 common men were executed, one third of them being deserters from the British Army.

The common prisoners drew lots amongst themselves and only one of out of twenty actually came to trial. Although most those who did stand trial were sentenced to death, almost all of these had their sentences commuted to transportation to the British colonies for life. In all, 936 men were thus transported, and 222 more were banished. Even so, 905 prisoners were actually released under the Act of Indemnity which was passed in June 1747. Another 382 obtained their freedom by being exchanged for prisoners of war who were held by France. Of the total 3,471 prisoners recorded nothing is known of the fate of 648. The high ranking "rebel lords" were executed on Tower Hill in London.

Following up on the military success won by their forces, the British Government enacted laws to incorporate Scotland—specifically the Scottish Highlands—within the rest of Britain. Members of the Episcopalian clergy were required to give oaths of allegiance to the reigning Hanoverian dynasty. The Abolition of Heritable Jurisdictions Act of 1747 ended the hereditary right of landowners to govern justice upon their estates through barony courts. Previous to this act, feudal lords (which included clan chiefs) had considerable judicial and military power over their followers—such as the oft quoted power of "pit and gallows".

Lords who were loyal to the Government were greatly compensated for the loss of these traditional powers, for example the Duke of Argyll was given 21,000. The estates of those lords and clan chiefs who had supported the Jacobite rebellion were stripped from them and then sold with the profits used to further trade and agriculture in Scotland. The forfeited estates were managed by factors who were much more efficient than a hereditary chief could ever have been. Anti-clothing measures were taking against the highland dress by an Act of Parliament in 1746. The result was that the wearing of tartan was banned from everyone in Scotland except as a uniform for officers and soldiers in the British Army and later landed men and their sons.


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  #10  
Old 23-02-2013, 22:15
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Brian Wentzell Brian Wentzell is offline
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Default Re: Battle of Culloden -15th April 1746

Jim:

And British people wonder why the Scots want a referendum on independence! History may dull with the passage of time but it will not be entirely lost.

Brian
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  #11  
Old 23-02-2013, 23:29
jainso31 jainso31 is offline
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Default Re: Battle of Culloden -15th April 1746

And why the Irish fought with murderous bloodymindedness for independence-Yes Brian -we the English have much to atone for; but Scottish Independence IF the Scottish want it; will come at a price-the British Government in Westminster will see to that.
I belong to a town which was fought over by the Scots and the English for nigh on half a century; but do the people of the Royal and Ancient Borough of Berwick on Tweed remember the burning, rapine and townsfolk put to sword-I very much doubt that-memories are devoured by time Brian. Glencoe, Culloden Bannockburn, Flodden and aye the Battle of Halidon Hill outside Berwick in 1333 are but memories gathering dust. TEMPUS FUGIT.


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Last edited by jainso31 : 24-02-2013 at 00:14.
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  #12  
Old 24-02-2013, 00:30
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harry.gibbon harry.gibbon is offline
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Default Re: Battle of Culloden -15th April 1746

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...... but Scottish Independence IF the Scottish want it; will come at a price-the British Government in Westminster will see to that.

jainso31
Surely Jim, that should read:- if those resident in Scotland want it - being a Scot and living outside of Scotland has nothing to do with it!!

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  #13  
Old 24-02-2013, 02:08
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Brian Wentzell Brian Wentzell is offline
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Default Re: Battle of Culloden -15th April 1746

Jim: I have worked in both Eire and Northern Ireland and I think the Irish of whatever religious background are keenly aware of their history. We tend to ignore history at our peril, witness, for example, the stupidity of the western powers in Afghanistan or the troubles in the Middle East.
Brian
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  #14  
Old 24-02-2013, 08:50
jainso31 jainso31 is offline
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Default Re: Battle of Culloden -15th April 1746

Harry- of course I stand corrected-it is the residents of Scotland who will decide the future of the country they live in.Thanks for your comment nevertheless.


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  #15  
Old 24-02-2013, 09:30
jainso31 jainso31 is offline
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Default Re: Battle of Culloden -15th April 1746

Brian -on reflection-regarding the Scots and the Irish,it will be the Irish who have had the most recent experiences of oppression and therefore their memory of their plight will still be fresh.Some Scots still prefer to see the English as the "Auld Enemy"; but I do not feel that- when I visit Scotland three/four times a year.Of course I am a Border man-Berwick (Wee) Rangers FC hosted Glasgow Rangers FC -they won 3-1.

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  #16  
Old 24-02-2013, 16:46
johnny07 johnny07 is offline
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Default Re: Battle of Culloden -15th April 1746

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Yes Tony it is a blood curdling tale and I take no pleasure in the telling of it- but the truth will out.The English were for many centuries a cruel manipulative people and much of that still remains to this day.
I belong the Royal and Ancient Borough of Berwick on Tweed,which is in Northumberland and there is no fear of likes of me burning anyone's farm.Thank for your comments and I'll have dram with you.Cheers!!

jainso31

I dont think the English are cruel. We have a mourice dancing group in our village ( Banchory ) and they are all very nice chaps.
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Old 24-02-2013, 18:35
jainso31 jainso31 is offline
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Default Re: Battle of Culloden -15th April 1746

Quote

The English were for many centuries a cruel manipulative people and much of that still remains to this day.

Johnny my statement repeated above was a generalisation not "an overall tarring with the same brush"but I should have been more careful with my wording ie.for much" read "some"

a)The British Empire was the largest empire ever created.
b)Colonized 25% of Africa and cared little or not at all for the natives
c)The Only European power to ever control the whole of the indian subcontinent with complete aloofness
d)Had the largest, most powerful navy on the globe, larger then the next three opposing navies combined.
e)Was an extremely imperialist power and subjugated distant people for it's own economic benefit.

e) is still in the blood- even though it is unreachable; and to many observers we are reserved and cold.

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Old 24-02-2013, 19:04
johnny07 johnny07 is offline
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Default Re: Battle of Culloden -15th April 1746

Dont worry Jim I was being light hearted.
We really do have Morris dancers in the village though.

You are quite correct though, I'm English and I can be very cruel.
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Old 24-02-2013, 19:14
jainso31 jainso31 is offline
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Default Re: Battle of Culloden -15th April 1746

Enough said- I rest my case-I respect your wry "tongue in cheek" humour ..Onwards and Upwards Johnny.

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Old 24-02-2013, 19:19
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Default Re: Battle of Culloden -15th April 1746

I'm sure your Morris dancer will go down well at a ceilidh Johnny...
Just what you do with bell-encrusted batons in an eightsome reel would be a sight to behold.......
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Old 25-02-2013, 17:20
johnny07 johnny07 is offline
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Default Re: Battle of Culloden -15th April 1746

The Banchory Morris Dancers.

A cruel and manipulative bunch of men if ever I saw one.
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  #22  
Old 25-02-2013, 17:40
jainso31 jainso31 is offline
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Default Re: Battle of Culloden -15th April 1746

Oh My!How perfectly charming-not a bad bone in their bodies nor evil thought in their minds I'm sure. I take it all back Johnny.STARTED NEW THREAD-DO NOT BURY

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